Revisões Bibliográficas: Cãibras musculares durante o exercício

A cãibra muscular é uma contração involuntária temporária, porém intensa e dolorosa do músculo esquelético que pode ocorrer em muitas situações diferentes. As câimbras que ocorrem durante ou logo após o exercício permanecem de certa forma ainda incertas, embora haja evidências de que a grande maioria dos casos possam estar associados a distúrbios no equilíbrio de água e sal, enquanto outros parecem envolver atividade reflexa espinhal anormal sustentada secundariamente a fadiga dos músculos afetados. 

A cãibra muscular associada ao exercício é uma situação que ocorre com grande frequência e em diversas modalidades esportivas. O início é sempre imprevisível, assim como a intensidade e a duração dos espasmos musculares.

As câimbras musculares que ocorrem em ambientes envolvendo o exercício, estão segundo as revisões bibliográficas, associadas a alta temperatura, acompanhadas de grande perda de suor e pela alta ingestão de água pura (sem a reposição dos eletrólitos). Estes que são considerados então os fatores de risco para o surgimento das câimbras.

Alguns estudos, demonstram que a adição de sal e outros eletrólitos à água é capaz de reduzir a incidência das câimbras.

Poucos atletas escapam da dolorosa experiência de cãibras musculares. Cãibras que ocorrem durante ou logo após um período de atividade física são denominadas cãibras musculares associadas ao exercício (EAMC), e essas são comumente sentidas como uma “contração espasmódica e dolorosa do músculo esquelético que ocorre durante ou imediatamente após o exercício muscular, muita das vezes sentida quando em exercícios de alta intensidade” [ 1 ]

O que concluímos depois de várias revisões, é que pode haver ainda mecanismos diferentes trabalhando em situações diferentes e não há suporte conclusivo para nenhum dos mecanismos propostos até o momento, buscando explicar o motivo das câimbras. 

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